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Gemology

Table of Birth Stones:

Month Color Official
January Dark Red Garnet
February Purple Amethysr
March Pale Blue Aquamarine
April White  Diamond
May Bright Green Emerald
June Cream Pearl
July Red Ruby
August Pale Green Peridot
September Deep Blue Sapphire
October Variegated Opal
November Yellow Topaz
December Sky-Blue Turquoise

 

Table of Gemstones differentiate to colors:

Stone H S.G R.I SR/DR T Remarks
Aquamarine 7.5 2.71 1.57-1.58 Double T Imitated by synthetic spinel and glass
Chalcedony 6.5 2.62 1.53 Double T May imitate some moonstones
Diamond 10 3.52 2.42 Single T Natural coloured stones conduct electricity
Doublet (1) 8 3.69 1.73 Single T Synthetic white spinel top and base, with coloured layer
Doublet (2) 7.5 V 1.78 Single T Garnet top and glass base
Doublet (3) 9 3.99 1.77 Double T Natural sapphire top with synthetic sapphire base
Eilat stone 5 2.8 1.50 -------- O A mixture of copper minerals
Glass 6 V V Single T Bubbles and striae may be seen
Iolite 7 2.61 1.53-1.54 Double T Lower specific gravity and refraction than sapphire
Jadeite 7 3.34 1.65 Double TI A rare colour for jadeite
Lapis lazuli 5.5 2.85 1.50 Single O Usually shows specks of brassy pyrites
Moonstone 6 2.55 1.53-1.54 Double T Beat stones show bluish flash
Rutile 6.5 4.25 2.62-2.90 Double T Synthetic stone showing large doubling of the back facets
Sapphire 9 3.99 1.76-1.77 Double T The synthetic stones show curved banding
Spinel 8 3.60 1.72 Single T Weak reddish under the colour filter
Spinel (synthetic) 8 3.63 1.73 Single T Strong red under the colour filter
Sodalite 5.5 2.30 1.48 Single O Resembles lapis lazuli, usually no pyrites
Swiss Lapis 6.5 2.6 1.54 Double O Dyed jasper to imitate lapis lazuli
Topaz 8 3.56 1.61-1.62 Double T Denser than aquamarine which it resembles
Tourmaline 7.5 3.08 1.62-164 Double T Doubling of the back facets readily seen
Turquoise 6 2.7 1.62 -------- O Often waxed or treated
Zircon 7.5 4.68 1.92-1.98 Double T Stong doubling of the back facets can be seen
Zoisite (Tanzanite) 6 3.35 1.69-1.70 Double T Has directional colour changes of violet, blue and brown

 

H=Hardness; S.G.=Specific Gravity; RI=Refractive indices; SR/SD= Single / Double Refraction T=Transparency

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